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The 4th century saw a very large number of new, small legions created, a process which began under Constantine II.
In addition to the elite palatini , other legions called comitatenses and pseudocomitatenses , along with the auxilia palatina , provided the infantry of late Roman armies.
The Notitia Dignitatum lists 25 legiones palatinae , 70 legiones comitatenses , 47 legiones pseudocomitatenses and auxilia palatina in the field armies, and a further 47 legiones in the frontier armies.
The names also suggest that many new legions were formed from vexillationes or from old legions. In addition there were 24 vexillationes palatini, 73 vexillationes comitatenses; other units in the Eastern limitanei and in the Western limitanei.
According to the late Roman writer Vegetius ' De Re Militari , each century had a ballista and each cohort had an onager , giving the legion a formidable siege train of 59 Ballistae and 10 Onagers each manned by 10 libritors artillerymen and mounted on wagons drawn by oxen or mules.
In addition to attacking cities and fortifications, these would be used to help defend Roman forts and fortified camps castra as well.
They would even be employed on occasion, especially in the later Empire, as field artillery during battles or in support of river crossings.
Despite a number of reforms, the Legion system survived the fall of the Western Roman Empire , and was continued in the Eastern Roman Empire until around 7th century, when reforms begun by Emperor Heraclius to counter the increasing need for soldiers around the Empire resulted in the Theme system.
Aside from the rank and file legionary who received the base wage of 10 asses a day or denarii a year , the following list describes the system of officers which developed within the legions from the Marian reforms BC until the military reforms of Diocletian c.
The rank of centurion was an officer rank that included many grades, meaning centurions had very good prospects for promotion. The most senior centurion in a legion was known as the primus pilus first file or spear , who directly commanded the first century of the first cohort and commanded the whole first cohort when in battle.
Within the second to tenth cohorts, the commander of each cohort's first century was known as a pilus prior and was in command of his entire respective cohort when in battle.
The seniority of the pilus prior centurions was followed by the five other century commanders of the first cohort, who were known as primi ordines.
In modern military terms, an ordinary centurion was approximately equivalent to a Warrant Officer that had a junior officer's commission.
Whereas the most senior centurion was closer to the equivalent to the rank of a full Captain. The equestrian, or military tribunes held positions equivalent to the rank of Major, while the Senatorial Tribune and the Camp Praefect were the equivalent of a Lt.
The centuries took their titles from the old use of the legion drawn up in three lines of battle using three classes of soldier. Each century would then hold a cross-section of this theoretical line, although these century titles were now essentially nominal.
Each of the three lines is then sub-divided within the century into a more forward and a more rear century. From the time of Gaius Marius onwards, legionaries received denarii a year equal to Sestertii ; this basic rate remained unchanged until Domitian , who increased it to denarii.
In spite of the steady inflation during the 2nd century, there was no further rise until the time of Septimius Severus , who increased it to denarii a year.
However, the soldiers did not receive all the money in cash, as the state deducted their pay with a clothing and food tax.
To this wage, a legionary on active campaign would hope to add the booty of war, from the bodies of their enemies and as plunder from enemy settlements.
Slaves could also be claimed from the prisoners of war and divided amongst the legion for later selling, which would bring in a sizeable supplement to their regular pay.
Later, under Caracalla , the praemia increased to denarii. From BC onwards, each legion used an aquila eagle as its standard symbol.
The symbol was carried by an officer known as aquilifer , and its loss was considered to be a very serious embarrassment, and often led to the disbanding of the legion itself.
Normally this was because any legion incapable of regaining its eagle in battle was so severely mauled it was no longer combat effective.
When Caesar's troops hesitated to leave their ships for fear of the Britons, the aquilifer of the tenth legion threw himself overboard and, carrying the eagle, advanced alone against the enemy.
His comrades, fearing disgrace, 'with one accord, leapt down from the ship' and were followed by troops from the other ships.
With the birth of the Roman Empire, the legions created a bond with their leader, the emperor himself. Each legion had another officer, called imaginifer , whose role was to carry a pike with the imago image, sculpture of the emperor as pontifex maximus.
Each legion, furthermore, had a vexillifer who carried a vexillum or signum , with the legion name and emblem depicted on it, unique to the legion.
It was common for a legion to detach some sub-units from the main camp to strengthen other corps. In these cases, the detached subunits carried only the vexillum, and not the aquila, and were called, therefore, vexillationes.
A miniature vexillum, mounted on a silver base, was sometimes awarded to officers as a recognition of their service upon retirement or reassignment.
Civilians could also be rewarded for their assistance to the Roman legions. In return for outstanding service, a citizen was given an arrow without a head.
This was considered a great honour and would bring the recipient much prestige. The military discipline of the legions was quite harsh.
Regulations were strictly enforced, and a broad array of punishments could be inflicted upon a legionary who broke them.
Many legionaries became devotees in the cult of the minor goddess Disciplina , whose virtues of frugality, severity and loyalty were central to their code of conduct and way of life.
Examples of ideas that were copied and adapted include weapons like the gladius Iberians and warship design Carthaginians , as well as military units such as heavy mounted cavalry and mounted archers Parthians and Numidians.
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Contents [ show ]. Main articles: Roman army , Military history of ancient Rome , and Structural history of the Roman military.
Main article: Early Roman army. Main article: Roman army of the mid-Republic. Main article: Marian reforms.
Main article: Imperial Roman army. Main article: Late Roman army. Main article: Roman military decorations and punishments.
Vol 1. To The Present. Ernest Dupuy, and Trevor N. War , Gwynne Dyer. The Punic Wars , Adrian Goldsworthy. Cornell "Legion GmbH. Complete Roman Army.
Studies in the Auxilia of the Roman Army. Frontiers of the Roman empire. Over the centurions were six tribunes, and leading the entire legion was the legate, a senator appointed by the Emperor.
During the time of the Roman Republic — 27 BC , all male Romans citizens age 17—46 were required by law to be available to serve in the Roman army for a period of up to six years.
However, by the start of the Roman Empire 27 BC , Augustus Caesar brought about changes that created a more professional, long-serving army.
Soldiers in a Roman legion served under respectable conditions. They received regular pay, periodic bonuses, and compensation at the time of release.
Living accommodations were often better than what the men experienced outside of the army, with permanent forts that included basic amenities and even bathhouses.
Soldiers were well-fed and provided with clothing, equipment, and medical care by the state. Members of Roman legions were considered persons of importance in society and, once discharged from service, were usually able to live comfortably.
In the New Testament, the word legion is never used in a military sense. Augustus and his immediate successors transformed legions into permanent units, staffed by entirely career soldiers on standard year terms.
During the Dominate period near the end of the Empire, — , legions were also professional, but are little understood due to scarcity of evidence compared to the Principate.
What is clear is that late legions were radically different in size, structure, and tactical role from their predecessors, despite several retaining early period names.
This was the result of the military reforms of Emperors Diocletian and Constantine I , and of further developments during the 4th century. The legions were identified by Roman numerals , though the spelling sometimes differed from the modern "standard".
Usually they were authorized by the Roman Senate , and were later disbanded. Gaius Marius ' reforms transformed legions into standing units, which could remain in being for several years, or even decades.
This became necessary to garrison the Republic's now far-flung territories. Legionaries started large-scale recruiting of volunteer soldiers enlisted for a minimum term of six years and a fixed salary, although conscription was still practiced.
The property requirements were abolished by Marius, so that the bulk of recruits were henceforth from the landless citizens, who would be most attracted to the paid employment and land offered after their service.
In the last century of the Republic, proconsuls governing frontier provinces became increasingly powerful.
Their command of standing legions in distant and arduous military campaigns resulted in the allegiance of those units transferring from the Roman state to themselves.
These imperatores lit: victorious generals, from the title imperator they were hailed with by their troops frequently fell out with each other and started civil wars to seize control of the state.
In this context, the imperatores raised many legions that were not authorised by the Senate, sometimes having to use their own resources.
As civil wars were resolved, many of these "private" units would be disbanded, only for more to be raised to fight the next civil war. The legions included in the following list had a long enough history to be somehow remarkable.
Most of them were levied by Julius Caesar and later included into Octavian 's army, some of them were levied by Marc Antony. The numbering of the legions is confusing, since several legions shared the same number with others.
Augustus numbered the legions he founded himself from I, but also inherited numbers from his predecessors. Each emperor normally numbered the legions he raised himself starting from I.
However, even this practice was not consistently followed. For example, Vespasian kept the same numbers as before for legions he raised from disbanded units.
Trajan 's first legion was numbered XXX because there were 29 other legions in existence at the time it was raised; but the second Trajanic legion was given the sequential number II.
These three legions are without titles, suggesting that in disgrace their titles may have been deliberately forgotten or left unmentioned.
As a result of this somewhat chaotic evolution, the legion's title became necessary to distinguish between legions with the same number.
Legions often carried several titles, awarded after successive campaigns, normally by the ruling emperor e. XII Fulminata was also awarded: paterna fatherly , victrix victorious , antiqua venerable , certa constans reliable, steadfast and Galliena Gallienus '.
Pia fidelis loyal and faithful , fidelis constans and others were titles awarded to several legions, sometimes several times to the same legion.
Only the most established, commonly used titles are displayed on this table. Legions bearing the personal name of an emperor, or of his gens clan e.
Augusta , Flavia were either founded by that Emperor or awarded the name as a mark of special favour. This shows the castra base where the legion spent the longest period during the Principate.
Legions often shared the same base with other legions. Detachments of legions were often seconded for lengthy periods to other bases and provinces, as operational needs demanded.In the time of Jesus, a standard Roman legion consisted of about 6, men. The Gallica helped Caesar carry article source major campaigns against the Forum Programmierer, the highlights being the battles of Pharsalus and Munda. The three lines were 75 m feet apart, and from front to rear one maniple of each line formed a cohort of men; this go here the Roman equivalent of a battalion. Also, some warfare was still conducted by Roman forces outside the legionary structure, Roman Legion most famous click being the campaign in BC by the clan army of gens Fabia against the Etruscan city of Veii in which the clan was annihilated. Https://africanmangoreviews.co/online-roulette-casino/beste-spielothek-in-baltersweiler-finden.php Legio Hispana Triumphalis, along with other legions enlisted in the campaign by Octavian, soon brought the whole of Sicily under Roman rule. Organization of the Roman Imperial Legion. The equites were later placed in Roman Legion groups of 30 that were commanded by decurions which means commander of ten. In modern times the term legion has been applied to a corps of foreign volunteers or mercenaries, such as the French provincial legions of Francis I and the second-line formations of Napoleon. In the period before the raising of the legio and the early years of the Roman Kingdom and the Republic, forces are described as being organized into centuries of roughly one hundred men. Metal armor may provide much needed protection, but it can be extremely uncomfortable, particularly when worn for long periods of time.